Household savings.

Автор:Буров А.

Апр 17, 2024
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Household savings.

Even five years ago, utility bills were annoying with the need to fill out a lot of receipts, although the bills themselves were meager.

Now they send us ready-made receipts, but their prices are no longer ridiculous.

Further tariffs will only increase. But if previously light and water could be saved in one way — turning them off, now consumers will be helped by energy-saving household appliances and light bulbs, as well as meters that can be installed by the utility companies themselves.

Growth in an era of recession

In early December, the capital’s authorities announced that utility tariffs for Muscovites would increase by almost a third. 1 kWh of electricity for owners of electric stoves in 2009 will cost 2.11 rubles. instead of 1.66 rubles. in 2008 (owners of gas stoves will pay 3.01 rubles instead of 2.37 rubles).

For cold water in residential buildings equipped with water supply, sewerage and bathrooms with hot water supply, you will need to pay 107.15 rubles. (last year — 81.84 rubles) per month per person.

The new tariff for hot water supply is 354.3 rubles, last year’s was 274.9 rubles. You will have to pay 24.3 rubles for gas. instead of 19.4 rubles. In general, rent and utility bills for a Moscow family of three living in an ordinary apartment (50 square meters) now cost almost 2.5 thousand rubles. — twice as expensive as five years ago.

And the growth rate is unlikely to decrease: it is difficult to determine how tariffs for the population relate to the cost of services. “Given the opaque, hidden veil of commercial secrecy of the activities of monopolies, it is absurd to talk about the transparency and accuracy of tariffs,” notes Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Energy Ivan Grachev in an interview with the Russian Federation Today.

Saving on utilities, especially during a crisis, is made relevant not only by the price of the issue. If previously everything came down to propaganda posters calling to turn off the water and turn off the lights, today there are devices that help you save automatically.

In Europe, where utility costs traditionally account for a significant share of family budgets, the use of special meters and energy-saving appliances has long become the norm. In Germany, for example, 1 cubic meter of cold water costs €1.91 — six times more expensive than ours, and 1 kWh of electricity costs four times: more than €0.2. Since Russian tariff policy is moving in a westerly direction, the potential for price increases is impressive.

For example, in Germany there is no constantly burning light in the entrances: on the staircases there is a switch that turns on the light for a few minutes, which is enough to walk up the stairs and open the door. Many Germans have long abandoned incandescent lamps in favor of energy-saving ones; most use preferential tariffs: dishwashers and washing machines operate mainly at night.

It’s the same with water.

For an ordinary German family, washing dishes under running water is crazy: as a rule, there are two sinks in the kitchen. And if there is no dishwasher, both sinks are filled with water: one with detergent, the other for rinsing clean dishes.

In Russia, ordinary consumers of utility services can save on water (the share of water supply in the total basket of utility bills is 25%) and electricity (up to 15% in houses with electric stoves). In the first case, a special meter will help, in the second — a meter and energy-saving devices: lamps and household appliances.

For now, for most compatriots, all this is a novelty.

“There is no domestic energy saving in Russia; we see that increasing tariffs does not lead to an understanding that electricity is a valuable resource that needs to be saved,” notes Konstantin Simonov, head of the National Energy Security Foundation. “Even basic energy saving measures such as the use of energy-efficient lamps are having a hard time taking root. People don’t believe that expensive energy-saving lamps can pay for themselves.”

Obsolete Edison

In three years, Europe plans to completely ban the sale of incandescent lamps, invented at the beginning of the 19th century in France and introduced into use by the American inventor Thomas Edison. From September 2009, the sale of 100-watt light bulbs will be prohibited; a year later, this fate will befall 75-watt lamps, in 2011 — 60-watt lamps, in 2012 — 40- and 25-watt lamps.

This decision of the EU Council at the level of energy ministers is one of the measures to increase the energy efficiency of the European economy by 20% by 2020. According to expert estimates, thanks to the transition to energy-saving lamps, the EU will save ? 5-10 billion per year. Not bad, especially considering that, for example, according to the Philips company, which occupies about a quarter of the global lighting market, half of Europeans have already abandoned incandescent lamps.

In Russia, the scope for saving in the world is much wider. According to Tatyana Li, Philips marketing manager in Russia, the volume of the incandescent lamp market is currently about? 110 million, the market for energy-saving lamps is about? 65 million.

Despite the fact that the cheapest energy-saving light bulb is 10-20 times more expensive than a regular one. For example, an ordinary 100 W incandescent lamp in Moscow costs about 10 rubles, while a 23 W energy-saving lamp with similar consumer qualities costs about 200 rubles.

This is what scares off Russian consumers. Few people believe that by buying one light bulb for the price of several, you can save money.

“The most economical energy-saving lamps for the home last more than ten years,” explains Vladimir Gabrielyan, vice president and general manager of Philips “Lighting Solutions” in Eastern Europe and the Balkans. “At the same time, you can replace a 100 W incandescent lamp with a 20-watt energy-saving — There will be the same amount of light, but energy consumption will decrease five times.»

While electricity tariffs were low, it was mainly specialists who delved into these details. According to Greenpeace Russia, lighting on average accounts for more than 15% of the electricity consumption of a standard apartment. “By replacing incandescent lamps with energy-saving ones, it will be possible to save up to 15 kW-hours per person per month,” says Vladimir Chuprov, head of the Greenpeace Russia energy program.

“A simple calculation shows that when replacing incandescent lamps with energy-saving lamps in a three-room apartment, you save more than 2.5 thousand rubles per year,” says Vladimir Gabrielyan. It is clear that an energy-saving lamp will pay for itself no earlier than in a year — and if it burns for at least three hours a day. But over the next four years it will bring the owner 100 rubles. savings per year.

Ecologist Chuprov paid for 160 kWh of electricity in May 2005, in June — only 70. Savings of up to 100 rubles. per month provided energy-saving lamps — exotic at that time.

There are three key manufacturers of lamps in the world — conventional and economical: General Electric, Osram and Philips.

“Energy-saving lamps from different manufacturers differ slightly in design, but the range and consumer characteristics are basically the same,” says Vladimir Avdeev, head of the technical information group of the sales department of MPO Elektromontazh. Some Chinese manufacturers are no worse — for example, Camelion. They also cost less.

“Another thing is lamps from unknown Chinese companies, which are sold almost by weight in various hypermarkets,” the specialist clarifies. “They are very cheap — 60-70 rubles, but the light from them is not bright enough, and they do not last long.”

“Buyers first of all look at the power, then at the shape (the main thing is that the lamp fits into the lamp,” says Vladimir Avdeev from MPO Elektromontazh.

“The next criterion is service life, however, few people pay attention to this yet, although and the service life is different: in most cases, from 6 to 15 thousand hours.» By the way, there is another argument in favor of energy-saving lamps. “Most incandescent lamps work normally only in a vertical position,” explains Avdeev.

“If the socket in the lamp is located horizontally, the incandescent lamp (regardless of the manufacturer) will burn out in a month: the horizontal spiral will stretch out and quickly burst.” Depending on the manufacturer, energy-saving lamps require different voltages to operate properly. For example, Osram lamps require at least 180 volts to maintain combustion.

“Of course, this is not suitable for all village residents, since in rural areas the tension may be less,” Avdeev warns. Many energy-saving lamps do not light up immediately — it takes a moment for the cathodes to warm up. It will take some more time for the lamp to warm up and reach maximum output.

It would seem nonsense, but this significantly extends the service life. Some generally perceive a relative minus in operation as a plus: a “flare-up” energy-saving lamp does not blind a person entering from the dark. In addition, if previously energy-saving lamps worked only in positive temperatures, now they shine even in severe frost, and they can be used outdoors.

Household «tariffs»

Another option for saving energy in the home is economical household appliances: energy consumption class A and higher. “Here the payback period is different, because these are quite expensive devices,” notes Vladimir Chuprov. “For example, my Class A refrigerator paid off the difference in cost with cheaper, but less economical models in about three years.”

However, now it is not easy to find modern equipment of classes from B to G. For example, ten years ago, about 20% of household refrigerators sold in Europe were energy class A, and in some countries the share of such refrigerators reached 50%. Manufacturers constantly tightened their standards, and in 2003 two new classes were introduced: A+ and A++.

A separate point is electric heaters. You can’t heat the street, and environmentalist Chuprov calls for insulating windows: “In winter, electric heaters in metropolitan apartments consume up to 1.5 thousand MW, and this is a lot — about 10% of the capacity available in Moscow.”

It is advisable to install electricity meters with two or three tariffs. In the first case, you have access to daytime (RUB 1.60 per 1 kWh of electricity in houses with electric stoves) and nightly tariffs (four times cheaper). If the meter is more advanced, the division into tariffs is different: peak (less than 1.60 rubles for a house with electric stoves), half-peak (about 1 ruble) and minimum — night (about 40 kopecks). “The relatives installed a two-tariff meter and are very pleased with it,” says Vladimir Avdeev.

“True, now they will never boil the kettle if there is not long left before the grace period.” “This is an opportunity not so much for saving as for self-discipline,” says Andrei Lantsov, an employee of the Institute for Energy Efficiency Problems at the Moscow Energy Institute (MPEI). “And if your children do not leave the TV or computer for days, the effect of saving is unlikely to be noticed.” . The effect of saving water is more noticeable.

We pay the full cost of preparation, delivery and heating of water (58 rubles per 1 m3 of hot water and 12 rubles per 1 m3 of cold water). The bill for each apartment is based on the number of registered residents and the average consumption per person in the house.

The average household consumption is probably higher than yours: the high-rise building has both leaks and unregistered residents.

“A water meter will save you from paying for the average volume of water consumed in your home,” says Chuprov. “The cost of the service is up to 5 thousand rubles, and citizens who are entitled to benefits can install it for themselves for free.”

In practice, a family of three to five people can save up to 1 thousand rubles on water. per month. “When the neighbors next door started installing water meters, my family and I were on vacation,” Vladimir Avdeev shares his experience.

“I came back and found out that if before we paid 35 m³, then after the neighbors installed meters we paid twice as much.” But when we got a meter, consumption was only 17 m3, and we did not begin to limit ourselves.”

In the sales area of ​​MPO Elektromontazh there is a stand for water and electricity meters, but there is no point in asking the price of different models.

“The choice of household electricity meters is especially large: electronic and mechanical, with and without telemetry,” explains Avdeev. “But you can only install those that are on the list approved by your electric company.”

For example, if you want to install a water meter, and your apartment is privatized, then the DEZ will advise you to contact some private company.

Usually the technicians are sent within two days. Installing two meters — for hot and cold water — will cost 4.5 thousand rubles. (this will take at most an hour and a half). In addition, 30 rub. per month will be a “subscription fee”.

The contractor takes care of all the paperwork: the client will only have to take the folder with the papers received from the master to the DEZ so that the device can be registered there.

With an electric meter the procedure is no more complicated. Their installation in Moscow and the region is carried out by the company TsOPenergo.

On its website you can fill out an application for transfer to a multi-tariff meter. “The main advantage of this method is that there is no need to visit the branch of CJSC TsOPenergo, since all the operator’s questions are resolved by telephone,” says the organization’s website.

“The date and time of the work are agreed upon by telephone.” The cost of the service is 3.33 thousand rubles. (minus 3% if you applied online). Social card holders receive a 10% discount.

If savings in everyday life are limited to a short list of obvious proposals, then in offices or, especially in production, the potential for savings is enormous.

According to Vladimir Gabrielyan, if all existing inefficient lighting installations are completely replaced with energy-efficient ones, in Russia alone, up to 60 terawatts of electricity can be saved per year (30 medium-sized power plants produce this amount) — and this is 6 billion in savings annually!

“Not all optimization decisions in industry are related to reducing energy intensity,” says Konstantin Simonov. “Sometimes it’s easier to get tariff benefits than to save money: business first tries to find a political solution, and then thinks about the economy.

For example, Norilsk Nickel recently acquired a generating company, which, of course, will allow him to quickly solve his problems with electricity.” As a result, in Russia, the production of 1% of GDP requires three times more energy consumption than in Europe, and twice as much as the world average.

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